Epistemology of Physics

Dedicated to the French shepherd , that during the second world  war , and while avoiding being noticed, he succeeded in planting a very large desert area in south France, with oak trees, that by the end of the war it had become a new living forest!

Dedicated also to Buckminster Fuller . I quote from the introduction of Guinea Pig B (his last manuscript) " I AM NOW CLOSE TO 88 and I am confident that the only thing important about me is that I am an average healthy human. I am also a living case history of a thoroughly documented, half-century, search-and-research project designed to discover what, if anything, an unknown, moneyless individual, with a dependent wife and newborn child, might be able to do effectively on behalf of all humanity that could not be accomplished by great nations, great religions or private enterprise, no matter how rich or powerfully armed."

"The Things to do are: the things that need doing, that you see need to be done, and that no one else seems to see need to be done. Then you will conceive your own way of doing that which needs to be done that no one else has told you to do or how to do it. This will bring out the real you that often gets buried inside a character that has acquired a superficial array of behaviors induced or imposed by others on the individual. "Letter to "Micheal" (16 February 1970) Micheal was a 10 year old boy who had inquired in a letter as to whether Fuller was a "doer" or a "thinker".

I think that the link of his spirit and actions is precious in transcending all those that where created in nature and the science of physics during the 20th century, by  causes before during and after the world wars, but for  wars.

1) " On Special Relativity's  second Postulate  "  Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie ,Vol 9 , no 4 ,1984 . Co-author Dr. C.Tzanakis Lecturer at the University of Crete ,Greece Comments and Interpretation:

This paper is an analysis of the axioms of special relativity. It proves that some of the axioms of Einstein give as logical consequence the rest of the axioms. This paper was elaborated while the author was in a research visit at the University ULB in Brussels. It was Dr C. Tzanakis  that insisted in publishing it ,while Dr Kyritsis gave only the initial remark  that the uniformity of the speed of light inside a single system of reference was adequate to produce what Einstein was up to. Contrary to Dr Tzanakis, Dr Kyritsis does not share the belief of Einstein that the speed of light is "law of nature" that has to be invariant in all systems of reference. Einstein's conceptual approach does not represent  the ideas of Dr Kyritsis.  As Dr Kyritsis sees it, at present, the light is a wave of the electromagnetised field-gas that is not purely mechanical and follows the speed of its source as far as the source applies drag forces to the surrounding field-gas and makes it follow it. A whole area in fluid dynamics studies the flow of a fluid, past by a body. The misunderstanding in the history of physics followed three phases. At first it started as light  was falsely identified with the compression wave of the neutral Field-gas (at that time called aether) which is a purely mechanical wave. This does not have nevertheless so much grave consequences as the two types of waves, the purely mechanical compression waves and the light waves, although of different nature, have the same speed. Second and mainly  it was falsely thought that   the  aberration of light that we observe (which is in the same direction of motion of the receiver) cannot occur if the receiver applies drag forces to the field-gas medium of propagation of light and makes it follow it at some area around it .This is not so!  Any attempt to prove that the aberration would be impossible while the moving receiver applies drag forces to the field-gas surrounding the receiver, would contain either wrong arguments or misconceptions. Neither Poincare neither Lorentz did insist hat the aberration would be incompatible with an aether carried away by the planets motions like an atmosphere around it. They only remarked that it would be difficult to explain  it in detail. The aberration  does occur , although the light has  curvilinear light paths due to refraction and drag forces from field-gas (or field matter or aether). Aberration  is not annihilated by   the fact that the receiver may apply drag forces to the surrounding medium field-gas and take it with it, or because of refraction on the atmosphere, as far as it holds that at sufficient larger distance of the receiver, the medium  field-gas is not influenced my the motion of the receiver. Of course a whole range of velocities occur,  from a point of the field-gas that that has zero relative speed to the receiver, ( at the receiver) ,to a point of the field-gas that is sufficient away not to be influenced by the motion of the receiver. To see why aberration occurs in spite the fact that the field-gas follows the planet and its atmosphere we may make the artificial assumption that the field-gas follows the atmosphere till some height h0 and then it does not at all. We may calculate aberration at height h0  , and no aberration in lower heights. The total results is of course existence of aberration. The reality differs from this artificial black-and-white situation in to that the passage from the states "the field-gas follows the atmosphere and planet's motion" and "the field-gas does not follow the motion of the planet" is a whole spectrum of intermediate states. All that it takes for the aberration to occur  is a)  that there is an external area of the medium of propagation field-gas that it is not influenced by the motion of the receiver where we assume the source of the light placed and b) that the receiver is moving relative to the source. Of course the aberration path of the light is curvilinear! (not because of gravitation! Neither in the sense of Newton neither in the sense of Einstein's general relativity! But due both to refraction and drag forces of the earth both on the atmosphere and on the field-gas (or aether or field-matter)). 

Both facts

a) that`, at the round table of the Michelson-Morley experiment, the field-gas follows the motion of the source of the light,( and in fact it could be for many thousands of kilometers above the surface of the planet as the atmosphere puts also a drag force to the field-gas)

 b)  that the aberration could still hold,  if outside the planet's atmosphere the field-gas does not follow the motion of the planet ,

both these facts had been suggested by Lorenz himself (for b) Lorenz rightly remarked that it is little more difficult to analyze because of the curvilinear line of the light path) and silently supported by Poincare and others. But Einstein hushed to publish his conceptions before Lorenz and Poincare could explain also the increase on the inertia of particles, due to their motion. (And this is how the third misunderstanding occurred, after the publications of Einstein).

  Thus the results of the Michelson-Morley experiments and the experiments on aberration of light of distant starts are perfectly consistent between them without the need of Einstein's conceptions.  This by no means requires any abandoning of the Galileo's relativity transformations neither proves the necessity of introducing Einstein's special relativity and replacement of Galileo's transformations with Lorenz transformations. Neither in fact is relevant with any concept of formulation of physical laws in any system of reference. It is plainly obvious that any laws could be transformed and stated in any system of  reference but also obvious that only in some system of references the laws are simple, easy to observe and understand. Such a bold and general relativity conception is both not useful, and not a source of any kind of laws in Physics, because a very important the point is what transformations are to be considered. Sciences and societies are evolving, and misconceptions must be corrected and transcended. Einstein's misconceptions still have their influential regime in theoretical physics, but as I believe their so much honored place in physics is only that they played the role of a safe brake, in the further evolution of physics, at a century full of bloody, wars, crimes and terrorism. As far as such a spirit reigns in the societies there is no true hope, that physics can really evolve in to a more rational with transparent logic, peaceful practice.

    What Lorenz and Poincare did not explained, (the third misunderstanding) in other words, the increase of inertia because of the motion, is still explainable and derivable within Galilean relativity in the following way, as I suggest. All that is required is:

a) To make the assumption that increase of  the inertia of the bodies due to motion, comes from the  total resistance in their flow inside  the material layer of the field-gas. 

b) That the motion of the particles is constrained by the field-gas so that at every state of the motion the relation of non-following the motion  surrounding field-gas  and the part of the  field-gas which follows the particle, is such that can be described by a transformation that leaves invariant the speed and rectilinear propagation of compression (or light)  waves in the field-gas.

c) Furthermore, we  assume a mathematical property of the coupling of a particle with the ambient field-gas , that is in conformance to the transformations in b)  and gives the familiar formula of the increase of the inertia of the particle. This would  then be an additional independent hypothesis , derived by experiments but not in contradiction with Galilean relativity.

Although it would be possible to make a detail model of the microstructure of the interplay of the particle with the field-gas that would give the required consequence with less  assumptions, as the interest here is not to analyze phenomena of the micro-world but  to account for their macroscopic effects, what is adequate, is to prove only that such phenomena do not require the abandoning of the Galilean relativity, neither are equivalent with Einstein's special  relativity.

The three conditions obviously define a special type of coupling of the particle and the field gas. It is undergraduate university physics exercise to prove that the group of transformations in a gas that leaves invariant the rectilinear compression waves propagation (in other words the group of automorphisms of the D' Alemberts hyperbolic 2nd order wave equation) is exactly the group of Lorenz transformations.

It is said sometimes that Einstein's approach is equivalent with the aether explanation. It is not true. It is far from equivalent (e.g. with aether explanations as above , the speed of light is not a universal constant ,and it does not have an upper bound of 300.000 km/sec, in the same way that the speed of sound does not have any universal  upper bound of 340 m/sec).

As the age of Galileo remained in history the age in which, the  established knowledge believed that the earth is not moving and is square, or the 19th century as the century that  (created and)  rejected the atomic theories of matter, and favored and honored and accepted only the theory of phases of chemical matter, we might say that 20th century might remain in the history as the century in which it was accepted and  physicists believed, that nothing can travel faster than 300,000 km/sec and was abandoned the principle of sufficient physical causes for all microphysical phenomena at the scale of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Although still at present (2002) a majority of academic scientists still believe so, we cannot but make some humor, and jokes about it. The celebrated photo of A. Einstein with his tongue outside, may acquire a different meaning from the usual  , of  a farce with these conceptions, to all directions , including to the bearer of the face in the photo! Sometimes the trees hide the forest, and the funny situation can be seen only from a long distance from the present physics, or even from a far distance of some of the orientations of the present dominating societies. The tale  of the Emperor's cloths is a good wise metaphor. Only that contrary to the interpretation that some hush to use in a converse way, and obscure the situation,   (like R. Penrose) , the revealing interpretations is that the "relativistic space-time" and the "quantum vacuum" are the Emperor's celebrated cloths, that in reality, do not exist. And everybody admires and honors, these cloths (the "curved space-time" and the "quantum vacuum" ) except one day , even a young new student that spends more time in the internet than reading,  fat black volumes about Gravitation, could make us wake-up. Let us hope that new wars, shall not postpone very far in the future that day. Although I find it useful and safe to replace the "curved space-time" theories , with a more standard classical field theory of gravitation, with new potentials, and equations, that integrates both Newton's universal attraction, and corrects Einstein's gravitation within Galilean relativity, I do not find it neither useful, neither, appropriate for the time being, to change anything, from the axioms, and standard formulations of Quantum Mechanics. And this is not a physical theory preference but rather a preference of social situations .

I once thought of writing a small humoristic tale, of blind "bat-men" that measure space distance with sound signals, and create a relativistic space-time theory with Lorenz-transformations in the place of Galileo's, when they discover, that the sound on an experimental table, inside a moving airplane, has the same speed in all directions, and in particular both vertical and parallel to the direction of motion of the airplane, while at the same time they were still observing a "sound-aberration" from sounds outside the airplane.

It is direct from these, that the extra energy and momentum absorbed by the particle to bring it to some speed compared to its rest mass, is given to the field-gas close to  the particle that follows it. A phenomenon similar to the well-known phenomenon of added-mass in fluid dynamics , which has the equivalent phenomenological effect as if of an increase of the mass of the particle.

We get also as a consequence that if we represent the effective volume of a particle as a ball at the state of rest, at the state of motion  it becomes an ellipsoid contracted in the direction of motion! And that any  standing waves, in the effective volume, acquire a slower period. 

  These contraction results had already suggested and published by Lorenz himself (in his paper "Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity less than that of light" Proceedings of the Academy of sciences if Amsterdam, 6, 1904 ). It is obvious that although these results have the same mathematical  formulas as  the Einstein's concepts of space contraction and time expansion, they are conceptually totally different, as the former are derived within classical Galilean relativity and may lead to different predictions.

We should also notice that it would not be surprising at all, that new experiments on the inertial motion of laboratory size bodies, would give totally new types of coupling of particles and the field-gas when the motion is not simple rectilinear but rotational or under other specific conditions. Thus it could turn out that the dependence of inertial on various parameters, including the speed and type of motion, is something on which we may very well know very little! There are celebrated experiments, at least since the decade of 1980 that prove such phenomena (e.g. The Aspden gyroscope effect [University of Southampton], Hayasaka-Takeuchi experiment, British Aerospace experiments, etc)

 It is also impressive to notice, the irony in the development of ideas in physics as the earlier supporters of the idea of aether (that started from ancient Greece  that gave the Greek word aether, then claimed by  Newton ,later  by  Laplace , Euler , Maxwell, Thompson , Lorenz , Dirac [see [Dirac P.A.M.] etc) were rejected by the physics of the 19th century on the ground of arguments that also include the the next  (see Sir E. Whittaker's book "A  history of the theories of Aether and Electricity"  Philosophical Library NY.) :

"  a) If aether ideas were true, then they would lead to the consequence that for the moving bodies we would have an observed increase in their inertia ,

b)  and as everybody knows this has never been observed (it was 19 century University physics at that time!)

c) we conclude  that aether cannot exists"

  If only Lorenz or Poincare had fallen upon the right hypotheses of coupling of the particles with the field-gas (Electromagnetised field-gas or electromagnetic field, if they are electrons or protons) and derive its increase of inertia, the whole landscape of 20th century physics would be different as far as the conceptions of space-time and Einstein's relativity is concerned!

Dr C. Kyritsis  in a new work (see papers below),  proves in full detail all the above and  shows that with the Galileo's or Newton's relativity and assumptions about the nature of coupling of material particles  with the (neutral) field-gas, we may derive the same formulae as of Einstein, but with a totally different physical and conceptual interpretation,  in addition to the anticipation of new physical phenomena not possible in Einstein's physics.( Like, for instance, the possibility to have speeds much higher than (approximately) 300.000 km/sec, for light and bodies, or the existence of the neutral compression waves of the field-gas that is not light and propagates with the speed of light.) The Lorentz transformations come as automorphisms of the calssical D'Alembert's wave equation (applicable also for sound waves) and the speed of light is not any universal constant neither puts any upper maximum limit in the motion of particles (or photons themselves). Even if we postulate a kind of coupling of particles with the field-gas of the previous type , that can give velocities less that that of light, there is no limit in the possible speed of the particle as we can consider a sufficient large finite volume of field-gas that  surrounds the particle and follows it, so that the particle has always relative speed from zero to finite and  less than that of light, while this finite volume itself  may have speed faster than that of light, relative to the rest of surrounding field-gas. We may have an analogy of a human that can always stand relative speed to its surrounding air, which is  not more than the speed of sound, while still he can travel faster than the sound! He only have to get in to a supersonic airplane, and still he shall have speed relative to the airplane cabins air, less than that of the sound. And the sound of his voice, would have, to an outside observer, speed higher than that of the sound.  And so is with light and photons too. (Galilean addition of velocities).

    Fundamental Physics still can be as simple as Galilean relativity and there is no need to obscure it! And also we can still  make use of flat space and an independent time, even though the light ray paths may follow a curvilinear motion (due to aberration or Newtonian or other gravitation) . Not only because one day we may discover other means to measure space, than light rays, but also because Physics  had decided that whenever we discover a cause that influence the measuring devices, we should not assign it as a space curving but as an influence to the measuring device, that has to be abstracted to find the right strait distance. This is how the temperature expansion of material rulers and consequent clocks timing changes, was treated, when it was discovered. They did not claim a space or time expansion or contraction, but only such of the measuring device. And by correcting the measurement we get the result. And so is the case with the influence of the aberration or gravitation to the light rays. The argument that any measurement of distance with light rays cannot avoid curvilinear light paths is not different to an argument that would say that any distance measurement would eventually refer to a material instrument (even that reading the light) and in any such instrument we cannot avoid temperature expansion or contraction, too! But it was long ago the choice of physics that, (and  there are significant advantages of this choice), that this is not a reason not to define the space as flat Euclidean, independent from temperature , aberration , gravitation or other parameter.

Once it is realized, that there is an influence of the motion of a body thought the field-gas not only on light at the light aberration, but on any other body immersed in it , then it is easy to understand that classical Newtonian attraction should be supplemented with  this interaction. It is a kind of, so to say "kinetic interaction" or "flow interaction", [and with a  very well known analogue in material gas dynamics as the drag force or pressure of the gas on the bodies], that in the non-established physics has been often called "antigravity".   There are also experiments, at least since the decade of 1980 that prove similar effects (e.g. The Aspden gyroscope effect [University of Southampton] , Hayasaka-Takeuchi experiment, British Aerospace experiments, etc. For some reasons nevertheless it has not given to then the appropriate publicity, with elaborate and  quantitative reports on them.)

It is important to realize that this interaction is not really included in Einstein's general relativistic gravitation! 

The first to realize the existence of this interaction , was Laplace. (See Sir Whittaker's book mentioned above). He suggested that as planets move in the Newtonian aether, the flow that they create should intervene with the Newtonian universal attraction. It can be said that Laplace was one of the first to anticipate the existence of , what, as I mentioned, is often called, today, "antigravity". But at that time the corrections to the main planets that had been discovered  where almost negligible. It is plausible that the planet that would require a more significant correction than the others in the Newtonian model of motion because of universal attraction , would be the one closest to the sun,  because of the rotation of the sun , the motion of the sun inside the Galaxy , because of the large the size of the sun and the small size of the planet. So it is no a surprise that it was long ago known that Mercury did indeed showed some "anomalies" or "precessions" in its orbit compared to the Newtonian dynamic predictions, compared to  the other planets. One should expect of course that a correct formulation of both the "kinetic" and universal attraction, interactions should give a prediction of Mercury's orbit much more exact than those derived by Einstein and his gravitation. It is has been published at least informally,  by NASA that some "anomalies" in the dynamics of the satellites have been indeed observed, that cannot be accounted neither by Newtonian or by Einsteinian gravitation. There are also more experiments (that can be easily found in the Internet) than the  experiments on the  Aspden gyroscope effect [University of Southampton] , Hayasaka-Takeuchi experiments, and British Aerospace experiments , and the NASA experiments, that confirm deviation on the predictions of the dynamics and inertia of bodies  from, not only in the classical Newtonian theory but also from  the predictions of Einstein's theories.

    In the light of the above correct accounting of the Michelson-Morley experiment (which is not that given by Einstein and his special and general relativity) and  the aberration of light, and the, above mentioned, new experiments on the inertia of bodies, it should be considered that there are already sufficient many  laboratory experiments (neither astronomical, neither microphysical or of quantum physics) that reject both special and general relativity! On the other hand, almost all of the experimentally established formulas of special relativity are also derived in the above Galilean approach. 

Furthermore the paradox that classical Maxwell  electromagnetism is not invariant to Galilean transformations, is also solvable by the true reason: The correct equations of electrodynamics are not linear but non-linear and different of the original of Maxwell, and derived from the equations of energy conservation and momentum conservation of fluids, and in this case, gasses. Equations of fluids are of course Galilean Invariant. This is a totally different approach compared to that of the Einstein's solution and non-linearization of Maxwell Electromagnetism.

It also true, nevertheless, that for some reasons  it has not given to these discoveries, the appropriate publicity, with elaborate and  quantitative reports on them. So it is not surprising that the majority of academic researchers that make a career with publications in relativity physics, have not fallen upon their scarce publications and seem not to be  aware of them. Maybe there are also other reasons related to war-oriented monopoly of applications  that are not easy to realize that have kept these discoveries unknown to the academic public.

    We may notice here how a little wrong turn in the history of theories, may have such severe limitations in our understanding of the world in our spirit and shape our beliefs for a whole century. It is not of course the first time in the history of the civilization. During the time of Galileo, all of the well-established physics believed that the earth is not moving and is square, and till the end of the 19 century all the theories of the atomic structure of matter, were rejected and discredited. At least we improve a little bit. We cannot easily deal with such phenomena without the appropriate humor.  We  may observe that at each new century the new misconceptions become  subtler and subtler!

The next two papers have as a goal,  not so much to make new inventions even peaceful, but to present the right direction in the lines of thought, that we should follow so as to transcend present physics misconceptions. This process of course is parallel too, with  transcending and avoiding wrong directions of applications. We have chosen to  keep as far as possible a very long term perspective, that includes more than one century of physics, so as to avoid some of the present  celebrated mind traps.

But before reading them, two quotes from Buckminster Fuller
1) from his work synergetics :  The wellspring of reality, Introduction " We are in an age that assumes the narrowing trends of specialization to be logical, natural, and desirable. Consequently, society expects all earnestly responsible communication to be crisply brief. Advancing science has now discovered that all the known cases of biological extinction have been caused by overspecialization, whose concentration of only selected genes sacrifices general adaptability. Thus the specialist's brief for pinpointing brevity is dubious. In the meantime, humanity has been deprived of comprehensive understanding. Specialization has bred feelings of isolation, futility, and confusion in individuals. It has also resulted in the individual's leaving responsibility for thinking and social action to others. Specialization breeds biases that ultimately aggregate as international and ideological discord, which, in turn, leads to war.

There is an inherently minimum set of essential concepts and current information, cognizance of which could lead to our operating our planet Earth to the lasting satisfaction and health of all humanity. ."

2) from his work "Only Integrity is Going to Count (1983) "

" The question of integrity will get finer and finer and more delicate and more beautiful"..."Integrity of the individual is what we are being judged for and if we are not passing that examination, we don't really have the guts, we'll blow ourselves up"

There is a natural and admirable continuation of the science of physics that will permit humanity to fly free and integrate the earthly civilization with the other civilizations of the galaxy. And for the part of humanity that prefers to stay on earth a meaningful system of intellectual creative scientific and aesthetic knowledge and practice  that together with sufficient emotional intelligence , wisdom of power, instinct of measure , beauty, truth, health, satisfaction and excellence, goodness, justice and abundance of resources can lead to a happy and prosperous human life on earth in harmony with nature and  invisible divinity. It may be thought that the suggested continuation of physics and related technology would be a kind of reaction to a possible hostile alien threat.  But the truth is that a technology of  vehicles that travel fast and easy inside and outside the planet (in fact outside the solar system too) is something that would elevate the intellectual and spiritual quality of earthly human beings and would make them become more friendly to the planet and its ecological environment. And a physical laws and technology knowledge that can extract abundant energy from the gravitational potential energy of the planet and the sun, is something that will reduce reasons for interior wars and terrorism in the planet , between "rich" societies that "have" and "know" and "poor" societies that "have not" and "know not" .

The next research papers, are within the idea that there is a simpler, healthier and closer to truth system of concepts that continuous the human scientific knowledge of physics among the centuries , which discovers a source of energy by far more powerful than nuclear power. This new form of energy is confined only to non-destructive peaceful applications. E.g.  transportation and energy consumption, as contrasted to extinction of life on all the planet or parts of it, by nuclear power. In addition the required technological and engineering effort is a lot less compared to nuclear reactors, and its source is as abundant and omni-positioned as the potential energy of the gravitational field of earth and sun. Still the critical point in understanding both the mathematics and physics of it,  as well as its social and economic advantages compared to older forms of energy (like nuclear power) is entirely on the metaphysical quality and integrity of each individual.  The previous are no doubt the privilege of only sufficient advanced both in spirit, soul , mind and emotions civilizations. Any lack of the previous qualities would condemn the informed , to skip the read text, as "not sufficiently experimentally proved", "an other wacky and lunatic bunch of craps" or "speculative bubbles" , which is precisely a good protection for the content of the scientific and social truth. The knowledge of the world does not open unless we have sufficient knowledge of ourselves, sufficient integrity, personal truth  and knowledge of our motives. It is the type of self-awareness in our individuality both in its physical and metaphysical nature that creates an almost  sadomasochistic individuality and thus also a nuclear suicidal  world, and prohibits us from realizing what is plain obvious and true in the physical reality we look. Let us not forget that for centuries , "clever" people were looking at the sky, and the morning and evening sun, but still they did not realize the obvious that it was the earth that was revolving around the sun , and not the sun around the earth.

2) Classical Galilean relativistic hypotheses about inertia that derive the experimental results of Michelson-Morley , and  the light aberration. (1998-2002)

3) The Lancaster Lecture (1998)

(The same paper as Word Document)

(The same paper as PDF Document)

For more recent versions of this text, see the Blog 

http://thenewuniversalattraction.blogspot.gr/2012/04/3-from-lancaster-lecture.html

For more recent discussions relevant to new magnetic renewable energy (free energy) devices and an informal  review of the above paper as the 12 laws of the new millennium physics see 

the forum posts in the links 

http://www.overunity.com/index.php?topic=9297.0

http://www.overunity.com/index.php?topic=9253.0

See also the very interesting Blog 

http://new-energy-model.blogspot.gr/2012/01/1-some-worthy-links-of-free-energy.html

I put here also a quite informal review of new principles and laws in the Physics of the new millennium without equations and formulae.

The 12 laws of the new millennium physics

4) Social, Ecological, and Engineering advantages of renewable forms of energy, directly from the sun, from daily changes of environmental temperature of water, from the heat internal energy of atmosphere,  from the wind and from sea waves and tides. Relation with the hydrogen energy model. (2003).

In this paper we explore the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of renewable forms of energy. Among them a most remarkable source of almost inexhaustible energy, and  we have not been used to think about it, is the extraction of the (thermal)  internal  energy, of air, by conversion it in to mechanical kinetic energy. The  dynamics and thermodynamics of it, resample the way that atmosphere creates in a natural way, wind from heat energy of the air. The atmosphere can be considered a natural and random, vast aerodynamic generator. The effect is more clear in  the winds of larger planets like Jupiter. The anticyclones, are a clear example where heat internal energy of the atmosphere is converted to macroscopic kinetic energy. When a bottle of air is expanded, the temperature drops, and some of the heat internal energy of the air is converted to macroscopic kinetic energy, that can produce work. This is simply one of the 4 phases in the Carnot cycle. Although it may seem that the entropy decreases, in the overall it increases. To design aerodynamic generators, that can convert the heat internal energy of the air , in to mechanical kinetic in a controlled way is not simple neither trivial. As far as I know there is only one application for patent of such a generator, by an Australian inventor. His machine is based on rotation. The number of rotations per minute required to reach a level of power so that the produced energy can cover the required initial input energy to start the machine, is quite high. Such machines seems that can only function at a quite high level of power, and cannot be small in size, and power. In addition , they must have regulators that after a number of rotations per minute must stop for further increase, so as not to have an explosive increase of energy production. A good one would require most of what we know about  mechanical engineering , and aerodynamics. A square meter of air contains 1674.8 *106    Joule (almost 465 kw-hr) of internal energy and there are 5.18* 1018 kgr of air in the planet's atmosphere! Although in meteorology this energy per square meter, is considered not all "available" in a natural way, a good machine can extract an adequate percentage of it.  We all know that the average temperature of the planet's atmosphere is increasing because of trapping of the input sun's energy. Such an energy model, counteracts, although in a very small scale, this effect. In addition this source of energy is safe, without pollution, or CO2 ,abundant, renewable, and almost equally distributed  on the planet. To develop such generators is  required not only a group of good physicists, but also a group of good engineers, and sponsors too. The extracted energy can be converted from mechanical to electric by electric generators, and therefore can be used for electrolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this way we can obtain also hydrogen from water, and combine this energy model with the hydrogen energy model.

5) The Layers approach in the epistemology of the theories in Physics.(1995-2002).Although the 7-layers approach is  usually applied in Business and Computer Science (OSI, Open Systems Interconnection View), it has valuable implications in the mutual organization of theories in  mathematics and physics.