1) Missing specifications and hidden assumptions in Medical Statistical hypotheses tests.

In this paper, we analyse the implicit hypotheses used in Medical Statistical  Hypotheses Tests, that are not usually  experimentally tested and we bring them to the surface. We suggest new formulations and specifications for many familiar tests.We speculate on the development of methods that could be classified as non-parametric forecasting, non-parametric regression, and non-parametric disciminant analysis. The next table gives some examples:

 Name of The test Used for Distribution used Assumptions not tested, Additional test required Vague specifications New formulae or specifications required witch is not the size of the sample for the power or significance level Z-test, variance known Comparison of means Normal Normal Population Test for the Normality of Population , Test for the equality of variance in the two samples version "Large sample" Minimum size of the sample according to the accuracy level of normality Z-test, Variance unknown Comparison of means Normal Normal Population Test   for theNormality of Population   Test for the equality of variance in the two samples version "Small Sample" Minimum size of the sample according to the accuracy level of normality T-tests Comparison of means Student Normal Population Test  for the Normality of Population   Test for the equality of variance if it is assumed in the two samples version "Small Sample" Minimum size of the sample according to the accuracy level of normality Yate's corrected X^2 independence test Comparison of proportions X^2 Normal Approximation "Sufficient large sample to apply normal approximation" Minimum size of the sample so as to have no error up to the accuracy level of normality approximation Signed rank (Wilcoxon) Test Comparison of medians Non-parametric The two samples come from the same distribution Test, that the distribution is symmetric and if it is of two samples, that they  follow the same distribution. "Sufficient Large sample to make use of the normal approximation in the central limit theorem" "Small sample", "Large sample" Minimum size of the sample according to the accuracy level for the central limit theorem to apply without error McNeamars Test Comparison of proportions X^2 Normal Approximation "Sufficient large sample to apply normal approximation" Minimum size of the sample according to the accuracy level of normality approximation Woolf's test Comparison of proportions X^2 Normal Approximation "Sufficient large sample to apply normal approximation" Minimum size of the sample according to the accuracy level of normality approximation Log-rank test Comparison of proportions X^2 Normal Approximation "Sufficient large sample to apply normal approximation" Minimum size of the sample according to the accuracy level of normality approximation Sign-test Comparison of proportions Non-parametric Test for the equality of distributions in the two samples version "Sufficient Large sample to make use of the normal approximation in the central limit theorem" "Small sample", "Large sample" Minimum size of the sample according to the accuracy level for the central limit theorem to apply without error Anova's F-test Comparison of means F Normal Population, equality of variances Test   for the Normality of the Population. Test fo the equality of variances in the two samples if it is assumed Minimum size of the sample according to the accuracy level of normality

2) Speculations about new methods to prevent cancer, through new physics of the electromagnetic field

We quote some paragraphs of the paper, Lancaster Lecture, that is found in the present site in the pages of physics.

.....................

The existence of such neutral field waves, may have significant applications in Medicine. If in addition it might be proved one day that, the living tissues of  the human organism extend from the plasma of the cells (layer 0) to field-gas flow structures around the cells (layer –1) , then the view of this vorticity  flow structures of the neutral field-gas or neutral currents, around the living cells, may give significant information about their state of health. Such information might be crucial one day for the cure of the cancer. There is extensive work by Wilhelm Reich, whose “orgone energy” at the inorganic level seems to be simply the kinetic energy of the field-gas at neutral state. With his “orgone accumulator box” it seems that his was collecting with the “green house effect” energy from the diffuse density waves of the field-gas at neutral state, in the box which was converted also to air heat. In addition the role of the neutral  field-gas flows or neutral currents, for the life of the cells, might give explanations to the effects of the Chinese acupuncture, which for the moments is measured experimentally, with the differences of the electric conductivity, or resistance of living tissues. But as it is apparent from the paragraphs in this paper, the electric conductivity definitely depends on the flow of the neutral field-gas.

Some people in older cultures like Chinese or Indian, claimed that with sufficient exercise of the eyes, it could be possible for someone after having acquired this power, even to see this “glow” of the  “neutral sub-light” and all the flow patterns around the human body, at very close distance to the skin probably like the fibbers of a woollen pullover (it could be called “floware” of neutral currents) and knots and links of turbulent flow lines. There is also the technique of cirlian photography,  that takes pictures of the patterns of electric conductivity of the air around objects.

It has been published in the Journal “Scientific American” one such cirlian photograph, showing the network of capillary vessels as pattern of electric conductivity in air around a whole tree leaf, a long hour after half of the leaf has been cut-off! We must remind the reader, that vorticity flow structures (in this case not of air but of the field-gas )  as it is rotational motion, is quite stable and lasts for a long time.

I was always wondering how it could help at all putting leaves on a wound or on the skin of a patient, (botany methods of cure), which was one of the most common ancient techniques of cure. No transfer of chemical substances seemed to take place, which is the basis of the Hippocratic and Asclepiads principle of cure, which is also used in modern Medicine. Nevertheless if  we know that the  living cells have around them field-gas vorticity flow network, that is used for their reproduction and function, and that this can be taken either as direct structure, or indirectly as (kinetic) energy from that of the leaves, and used for the energising (kinetic energy) of their own flow structure, and finally as chemical energy of reproduced molecular plasma structures, then we get a rational for this practice.

The author believes that Medicine shall face gradually a major discovery, that would be a 4th  circulation system in the human body (at the layer –1 of field-gas), if blood circulation, nervous impulses circulation, and lymphatic circulation system, are the first three. This 4th circulation system, acts probably like a (field-gas) ventilation and control system, and it has of course its nodes (that eastern tradition and terminology calls “Charkas”). Obviously it  gives an excellent opportunity to Medicine to reach and influence internal organs, without surgery,  from exterior points of the skin, in apparently, distant and irrelevant points to the organs, at  the arms and legs etc. This is so for the same reasons, that it is easy in a building to reach interior rooms, from external nodes of the ventilation system, or reaching internal organs, through injections in blood vessels.

The author speculates also that, it is not so much the concept of “energy” that is crucial in this 4th circulation system, but rather the concept of “information of life functions”, with which the field-gas can be modulated to carry.  The author speculates that much of the information for the organisation of the body, at the process of embryo-genesis, might very well be stored in such flow structures of the field gas instead in molecular structures as we believe. The information storing capacity of the field-gas (layer –1) is obviously vast compared to the information storing capacity of molecular matter (layer0). Maybe much of the theories of causes of inherited properties in living organisms, that today we attribute almost exclusively to gins, may change in the future, by supplementing the causes, to information stored in the layer –1 of the field-gas structure.

I can recollect the theory of a German scientist during the 70s-80s whose name I cannot remember, who had a theory of field structure around the cells and the living organism, (similar to the neutral field-gas flow network that we mention),  that when destroyed or torn apart, gives rise to cancer, and loss of the mutual coordination of reproduction of cells.

He had made a remarkable experiment, in which he had put two groups of cells separated by a solid barrier made from some crystal. Although in contact with the barrier no , chemical molecule, or molecular virus, or other microbe could pass. One of the groups of cells had cancer the other was healthy. Nevertheless after some time the healthy group of cells got the cancer too! It is obvious that the patterns of field-gas flow can pass the glass, as the electromagnetic waves can do so too! This experiment proves that the reproduction of the cells (the uncontrolled reproduction of the cells is the cancer) is also controlled by the flow patterns of the field-gas, and also that ill field-gas flow patterns are sufficient to produce cancer. It seems that we must shift our causality of events of functions of the molecular plasma of cells (layer 0) to events in field-gas (layer –1). This is closer to truth in the same way e.g. that the in computer, the events of electromagnetic flow of bits in the hardware, have their causes in the software rather, than in the hardware. Once we may think of the neutral field-gas vorticity flow network, as a living structure, we might speculate of course for the existence of  living micro-entities at the level of field-gas that in the form of field-gas viruses could be also responsible for the loss of the control of reproduction of cells, in other words the cancer.

The well known causes of cancer like excessive smoking  (action of the poison nicotine in the cells, which is at the layer 0, that is due to particular molecules) etc, may not contradict this rational, as they may lead to the loss of coordination of the molecular cells with the field-gas flow patter layer, thus again to the loss of the control of reproduction of the cells in other words to cancer. Scientists early in the 20th century were producing cancer to experimental mice simply by brushing repeatedly their ears with tar! Tar (which is also produced at smoking) is a strong electric insulator, and this property may block seriously the control of the flow of the field-gas in the 4th field-circulating system in the body, on the electrochemical functions of the cell plasma, and consequently to cell reproduction too.

Going back to the Chinese acupuncture, we might try to speculate on the basic principles on which it functions, in the light of the above new physics. We should not fail to notice that the acupuncture needles increase obviously the coordination and electric conductivity between the molecular tissues and the field-gas flow structure above the skin. In addition the well known effect of electrostatic outflow of charge from any vertices of a charged object (in this case the outward end of the needle of acupuncture), indicates that it takes place an outflow of electrons, if the point and the needle is negatively charged (or inflow, if it is positively charged) that obviously changes the electric potential of the tissues, at the point of the acupuncture needle. This in its turn influences the flow of the (neutral) field-gas and restores the circulation of the field-gas, along the channel, that passes from the point. Restoring the circulation, in this 4th field-gas circulations system of the organism, restores part of the original health of the organism.

As a new measuring instrument for such a research based on the new physics of the neutral field-gas I would suggest an instrument that would measure the linear and rotational flow of the neutral field-gas around living tissues and the skin. This could be of course a purely mechanical instrument, as the Aspden gyroscope effect proves that there is an induced mechanical force on objects, but as this induced force is very weak, and the flow also must me already quite weak, an electrical instrument would be more effective. The principle here could be to use the induced electric currents in very sensitive wires or tiny coils, from the linear flow and vorticity of the neutral field-gas. If this again is very weak (it is the equations that should derive the expected quantities prior to the design and testing of the instrument), then we should provide currents to the circuits, and then measure the changes in resistance, and conductivity in the circuit as we move it across various areas of the air very close to the tissues. This is the method actually used to trace the channels claimed by the charts of acupuncture, and again it is the electric conductivity that is photographed by the cirlian photographic technique. We can produce in this way charts of conductivity of all the surface of the human body.

Then the design of a set of experiments to verify methods of prevention and cure of the cancer would be as follows

a)    Measurement of the electric conductivity of all the body, preferably at a very small distance from the skin (1-2 mm), and plot of a chart of it.

At the areas that the conductivity is low, lower than a level, (which means low flow of the neutral field-gas at these areas) there is increased probability of occurring of cancer, or other uncontrolled, cell multiplication. If the chart would give a uniform smooth pattern with low variations, then this might be the sign of good health. A parallel chart of the molecular temperature distribution and also of the (no matter how weak) gravitational field of the body (as we shall see its potential,  is the field-gas temperature) , would be also of good help for comparisons to find the “weak” areas.

b)   Next there should have a method to revive and increase the vorticity flow of the field-gas at these areas. Would this be, with direct mechanical vibrations on the surface of the skin? Would it be with the use of sound waves of a wide range of frequencies? Would it be with the use of magnetic field of particular forms e.g. uniform? Would it be using light and heat?  Would it be with the use of acupuncture needles?  It is something that experiment, and medical practice should choose. The results should be tested again with the electric conductivity and potential of the of the body

c)    Once a) and b) have been practiced we should measure, correlations and dependencies of statistical frequencies on organisms, that get cancer with the factor (and confounding) that their  electric conductivity charts had  “dark” areas of low conductivity.  Statistical study of the correlation of restoring the smoothness of the electric conductivity chart, with the cases that resulted in cancer. Finally a direct measurement on the effects of such “reviving” techniques and restoring of the electric conductivity smoothness, to the speed of  spread of the cancer, or even to stopping of spreading it, in other words posterior cure of it , if at all.

d)   If the statistical results confirm that cancer follows, after some time, with higher, probability, areas of low conductivity in the conductivity chart of the human body, then a preventive treatment, can be designed, that monitors the conductivity chart, at check-ups and restores the conductivity, in the "darker areas" with one of the methods, that it is tested that it does so.

As far as I know there were experimentalist that performed experiments, of measuring the electric conductivity and potential of areas of the skin or of the air close to the skin. They did that with not very sensitive and sophisticated devices for small space-scale areas close to cells, without appropriate fundamental physics about the results, and what they were indirectly measuring behind the electric conductivity. In addition to interpret the results they  were  transcending  from the life functions of the cell to the states of consciousness of the human subjects they used in the experiments.

The reader should be warned nevertheless, that the discovery of how life extends, depends and is controlled by the layer of the field-gas has also its dangers. These dangers are of the same nature as those that appeared in the discovery of chemistry and biology. The discoveries did not only give new methods to cure in Medicine, but under criminal will, they produced also new forms of subtler crime (e.g. poison murders, chemical weapons etc). It is obvious that deeper understanding of life and higher control of it, requires also higher maturity in the consciousness of the individual and the society. Maybe that was also one of the many reasons, that such knowledge has remained partly and officially in “exile” during the 20th century, in spite the obvious suggestions of the existence of the layer of the field-gas by the great masters in Physics, like Newton, Euler, Laplace, Maxwell etc.

.....................